Posts Tagged ‘Darwin’

The Real Turkeys of Boulder

December 7, 2016

Slow though the process of selection may be, if feeble man can do much by his powers of artificial selection, I can see no limit to the amount of change, to the beauty and infinite complexity of the co-adaptations between all organic beings, one with another and with their physical conditions of life, which may be effected in the long course of time by nature’s power of selection.

— Charles Darwin, On the Origin of Species

I was out walking on Boulder Colorado’s  Goshawk Ridge Trail after the US Thanksgiving Day and I saw a single line of at least 15 Wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) cross the trail in front of me. This seemed ironic as Thanksgiving is a time when lots of domesticated turkeys in the US are sacrificed for dinner. According to the National Turkey Federation, 95 percent of Americans surveyed eat turkey during Thanksgiving. They also estimate that about 45 million turkeys are consumed each Thanksgiving holiday.

I was sorry I didn’t have my telephoto lens and an off-trail permit to get some photos of these real, not for sandwiches, naturally selected (vs. artificially selected) turkeys. I was determined to return and get some photos for you.

Our journey starts on the Fowler Trailhead. To get to the Fowler Trailhead go left about two miles west of highway 93 on Eldorado Springs Drive (highway 170) to County Road 67. County Road 67 goes up past the Eldorado Mountain Yoga Ashram and ends at the Eldorado Mountain entrance where we pick up the trail…

eldorado-mountaintrailhed-sign

Eldorado Mountain Trailhead Sign

Here’s a trail map…

map

Take the Fowler to Springbrook North to Goshawk Ridge

The Goshawk Ridge Trail is within the Eldorado Mountain Habitat Conservation Area (HCA), meaning hikers must stay on trail unless they have an Off-Trail Permit. This free permit can be immediately obtained on-line.

Follow the Fowler Trail to the Springbrook  Trail. The  Goshawk Trailhead starts on the opposite side of a metal bridge over an aqueduct where you will see this sign…

entering-hca-sign

Sign at Goshawk Trail

After several fruitless attempts I found a flock on 05 December 2016 in the old growth forest on the South side of the Ridge about 1/3 mile (550 m) from the trailhead…

turkey-flock-1

I Found a Flock!

 Some Wild turkey facts:

-The wild turkey, throughout its range, plays a significant role in the cultures of many Native American tribes all over North America. Thanks to this we eat turkey on Thanksgiving day.

-The turkey was Benjamin Franklin’s choice for the United States’ national bird. He described the Great Seal…

“I am on this account not displeased that the Figure is not known as a Bald Eagle, but looks more like a Turkey. For the Truth the Turkey is in Comparison a much more respectable Bird, and withal a true original Native of America… “

If the turkey was chosen as the US National Bird would we eat bald eagles for Thanksgiving?

one-turkey-1

United States National Bird (Almost)

-By the early 20th century, thanks to hunting and habitat destruction, wild turkeys no longer roamed over much of their traditional range. Wild turkey reintroduction programs began in the 1940s. These efforts worked well and wild turkeys now live across North America.

-Only adult male turkeys (Toms) display the ruffled feathers, fanlike tail and bare head commonly associated with these birds. They also gobble with a distinctive sound that can be heard a mile (a kilometer and a half) away.

-Wild turkeys can have over 5,000 feathers. Male turkeys also have what is called a beard located in the chest area. Upon sight, the beard appears to be hair, but is actually a mass of thin feathers.

-Turkeys have a keen sense of hearing and can pinpoint sounds from as far as a mile away.

-Despite their weight, wild turkeys, unlike their domesticated counterparts, are agile fliers. They usually fly close to the ground for no more than a quarter mile (400 m) at speeds of up to 55 miles per hour (88 kilometers/hr.)…

one-turkey-display-1

These Wings Are Made For Flying (note the “beard” growing from the breast)

-Males are polygamous, mating with as many hens as they can charm and may be seen courting in groups. Genetic analysis of pairs of males courting together shows that they are close relatives, with half of their genetic material being identical. This evolutionary strategy is unlike that of species (e.g., deer) where only the dominant male mates. This ensures that non-dominant male’s genes will have an opportunity to remain in the turkey gene pool…

two-turkeys-1

Two Wild and Crazy Toms

-Turkey hens lay 4 to 17 eggs in early spring. The eggs are incubated for at least 28 days. The hatchlings are called poults and they hit the ground running. They are precocial (they are born able to survive) and nidifugous (they leave the nest shortly after hatching). Poults leave the nest in about 12–24 hours allowing mom to join the flock as a free bird. Hens do not invest much in rearing offspring because they don’t have to. Male turkeys don’t invest any effort in their offspring because that’s the way it is for turkeys.

two-turkeys-on-rock

Two Hens

-Occasionally, turkeys may behave aggressively towards humans. They have been seen to chase people. However, attacks can usually be deterred and minor injuries can be avoided by giving turkeys a respectful amount of space. A telephoto lens is required!

one-turkey-drinking-1

Thirsty Hen

– Predators of both adults and poults include coyotes (Canis latrans),  American black bears (Ursus americanus), and northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis). This may explain why the latter are attracted to this forest.

-Wild turkeys are omnivorous, foraging on the ground or climbing shrubs and small trees to feed. Turkey populations can reach large numbers in small areas because of their ability to forage for different types of food.

one-turkey-pecking-1

Tom Foraging on the Forest Floor

I discovered this young mule deer buck (Odocoileus hemionus) watching me photograph the turkeys. He appears to be saying…

young-buck

How About Taking My Picture?

Wild turkeys have been created and evolved by natural selection. This makes them precisely adapted to the environments they inhabit. They are amazing and beautiful wild creatures reflecting the influence of the natural world.

Domesticated turkeys have been selectively bred by humans to satisfy our needs with traits that we want. The result is a freak unsuited for the natural world. For example, domesticated turkeys are bred to have large breast muscles. The big breast muscles on these turkeys make it too difficult for mating, so they must be artificially inseminated. What a life…

turkeys

Modern Domesticated Turkeys Under Commercial Conditions. Photo by Scott Bauer

I prefer tofu.

 

 

Jewels in Boulder’s Banks

September 19, 2014

I’ve been taking Mandy the Dog to the Silver Lake Ditch at the Sunshine Canyon trailhead. She enjoys the snow melted water diverted from the Boulder Creek on her tired old legs…

Mandy Chills Out In Silver Lake Ditch

Mandy Chills Out In Silver Lake Ditch

Today’s tale started at the ditch bank while I was watching this wet retriever. I noticed a shrubby plant with delicate little red and yellow spotted flowers…

Jewelweed Plant on the Bank of the Silverlake Ditch

Remarkable Plant on the Bank of the Silver Lake Ditch

The flowers were remarkable to me for their color as well as their curved spur and pitcher-like shape…

A Pitcher-Like flower with a Curved Spur

A Pitcher-Like Flower with a Curved Spur

When I returned home I searched all of my favorite flower sites but I couldn’t find a match. Before declaring a new species I sought the help of a naturalist friend who identified this uncommon little plant as Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis). It is also known as spotted touch-me-not because the ripe seeds explode out of their pods when they are lightly touched.

Jewelweed was used for medicinal purposes by a number of native North American Indian tribes. It’s main value was as an external application for wounds and a range of skin complaints including poison ivy which ironically often grows nearby.

The jewelweed flower’s curved spur contains the nectar it uses to attract pollinators. It has been recently discovered that the shape of this spur is critical to pollination efficiency. The curvature of the spur influences the type of pollinator, the amount of time it spends as well as it’s position within the flower during pollination. The jewelweed flower and it’s pollinators are literally (I never use this term lightly) made for each other. This is an example of coevolution, a concept initially proposed by Charles Darwin. The bees and hummingbirds here in Boulder Colorado are attracted to jewelweed and the jewelweed has a spur to accommodate both hummingbirds and bees. Hummingbirds are bigger and carry a larger pollen payload so they are favored. I looked for a big hummingbird in the act but settled for this little bee…

Bee Find The Target

Bee Finds The Target

Aligns with Runway

Aligns with Runway

On Final Approach

On Final Approach

Pollination Underway

Pollination Underway

If bees could see they way we humans do (they don’t) here’s what the nectar approach would look like…

The Nectar Approach

The Nectar Approach

I also discovered this jewelweed poem by Betty Lies. Click on the title at the bottom to learn more…

We call it touch-me-not, this wildness

tense as a spring: Hands off,

it seems to say, but I know

something wound up

in the heart’s green coils

is crying Touch me. Touch me.

Touch me now. All fall

I have been drawn and drawn again

to one tall stand of jewelweed,

to touch the pendant seedpods,

feel them burst with life.

I understand it’s not just botany

that gives me such delight

running my fingers over their plumpness,

warming them till they explode

and scatter seed.

I have seen hummingbirds

bury their beaks in jeweled cups,

the bees delving so deep

you only know they’re inside

by the flower’s orange tremblings.

This autumn, when my body

keeps its secrets from me,

hiding something deep within,

it pleases me to feel

the life stored in those pods,

waiting for release, first now,

and then again to rise,

to rise after a slow cold winter.

Betty Lies, Jewelweed©

Improbable Parasites On the Mesa Trail

June 6, 2013

“Less than the coral-root you know
That is content with the daylight low,
And has no leaves at all of its own;
Whose spotted flowers hang meanly down.”

-On Going Unnoticed by Robert Frost

While enjoying our showy spring wildflower display on the North Mesa Trail I came upon a small brown plant shyly hiding on the forest floor pine duff (partly decayed organic matter). While this Spotted Coralroot (Corallorhiza maculata) does not need to be in the spotlight its very existence is an improbable tale.

Coral Root Orchid Plant (Corallorhiza maculata)

Coralroot Orchid Plant (Corallorhiza maculata) “Corallorhiza” is Greek for “coral root” and “maculata” is Latin for “spotted”

On closer inspection you can see the tiny Orchid blossoms; this is one of our tiny native Colorado Orchids

Coral Root Orchid Plant Flowers

Coral Root Orchid Plant Flowers

I was surprised when I discovered my first Colorado Orchid; I thought they only grew in lush, tropical environments. Actually there are more than 25,000 species of Orchids. There are more orchids than any other kind of flowering plant except those in the aster and daisy families. Although they are most common in the tropics, Orchids can be found almost everywhere except Antarctica and the very High Arctic, occupying almost any habitat, including on other plants (epiphyte). One, known as a Western Underground Orchid, lives entirely underground. There are at least 33 types of native Orchids in Colorado (compared to only four Native Hawaiian Orchids).

Early Coralroot

Early Coralroot

Coralroot Clump

Coralroot Clump

Orchid seeds are too small to contain stored nutrients. To solve that problem they must be infected by a specialized fungus that establishes a symbiotic relationship, sharing food and enzymes until the young plant can survive on its own. While many plants use soil fungi as a startup strategy, some orchids have taken an evolutionary sidestep and do not use photosynthesis at all. Orchids were formerly considered to be capable of directly living off of dead organic material (saprophytic) in lieu of photosynthesis. Recent studies have revealed that plants cannot live off of dead organic material; only fungi can do that. It is now known that plants previously described as saprophytes are actually parasites living off of fungi. These fungi transfer nutrients from the host plant to the parasite (called Myco-heterotrophy). The fungi themselves are parasitic on the roots of living plants.

Our Coralroots are the type of Orchid that never becomes self-sufficient. Researchers have discovered that members of the genus Corallorhiza are parasitic Orchids. They derive all of their nutrients from mycorrhizal soil fungi in the family Russulaceae (think mushrooms). Despite their name they have no roots but only hard, branched rhizomes. The relationship with the soil fungus begins before the microscopic seed can germinate and continues for the life of the plant. Finding the right fungi to cheat for life is a chancy business and most seeds just die. To improve its survival rate the plant produces millions of seeds per flower. This is why the seeds must be small and light (the Coralroot seed is only about 0.2 mm in diameter). Those few that do go on to survive parasitize their fungi into forming a coral-like formation enveloping the root that resembles a clump of soft corals. Our pretty little Orchid is a lifelong biological cheater, cheating its fungus cheater…

Coralroot Root Fungus Host

Coralroot Root Fungus Host

In addition to the unlikely success of its seed, the complex mechanisms which orchids have evolved to achieve cross-pollination are risky as well. These mechanisms were investigated by Charles Darwin and described in his 1862 book Fertilisation of Orchids. The book was his first detailed demonstration of the power of natural selection, and explained how complex ecological relationships resulted in the coevolution of orchids and insects. The view has been expressed that the book led directly or indirectly to all modern work on coevolution and the evolution of extreme specialization.

Orchids have developed extremely specialized pollination systems often relying on a specific insect for success. The chances of being pollinated are often rare, so orchid flowers usually remain receptive for very long periods and most Orchids deliver their pollen in a single mass. When a protective cap is dislodged by a specific pollinator the pollen baring part called the anther is exposed to the insect’s body. Two pollen masses (called pollinia) are attached to a sticky pad (viscid) which readily adheres to the bodies of insects. When insects visit another orchid blossom, the pollinia are transferred to a sticky surface. Each time pollination succeeds, thousands of seeds can be fertilized.

Coral Root Orchid Flower

Coral Root Orchid Flower Showing Petals, Sepals, Lip, Column and Anther Cap

I observed many hikers walking by this extraordinary example of evolutionary complexity without even noticing its unlikely existence…

Mandy Can't Find the Coralroot, Can You?

Mandy Can’t Find the Coralroot, Can You?

nor its diminutive beauty…

A Small Improbable Event

A Small Improbable Event

The Canadians apparently appreciate the Corallorhiza striata (Striped Coral Root Orchid)…

Striped Coralroot 2006 Canadian Stamp

Striped Coralroot 2006 Canadian Stamp


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